The impact of technological change, automation, economic pressures, retirements of senior scientists, downsizing of pathology structures, industrial EBA agreements, amalgation of pathology services, privatisation of pathology services and an unsustainable career pathway has led to workplace reform in public pathology, particularly in Victoria. This is a time of change where we need to define the future skills sets of the medical scientist. For educational institutions providing training for medical scientists it will require recruiting better quality and more able students that can achieve higher competency levels of laboratory medicine graduates in all disciplines. It will also require upskilling of current laboratory medicine graduates in some areas of pathology particularly for activities that pathologists no longer what to do. In addition, job roles for technicians will be redefined along with medical scientists. For the senior scientist role with a Fellowship of AIMS, AACB, ASM, HGSA or FFSc (RCPA) and experience will have the redefined role of clinical scientist. This presentation will examine the issues and how we can best develop the future skill sets of medical scientists to sustain the pathology industry and provide a positive career pathway for the future.