Cell therapy, after many years of optimism about its potential for being a new pillar of medicine appears to be finally delivering some exciting trial outcomes that can only be characterised as disruptive, in the sense that they may well significantly alter how certain diseases are treated. Dr Wall will report on some of the more outstanding developments in this field. However at the same time, due to a variety of factors such as exemption frameworks from regulatory oversight and the general public's confusion between proven stem cell treatments and the large numbers of unproven commercially available treatments, we are seeing some products with unproven claims being commercially exploited. At the far end of the spectrum some very alarming reports have emerged alleging patient harm or threat of harm from poorly or unregulated and unproven treatments. Dr Wall will also cover some of these developments, and will reflect upon the promise and the risks associated with this novel field.